Cell-saving drugs could reduce brain damage after stroke – University of Copenhagen

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26 March 2014

Cell-saving drugs could reduce brain damage after stroke

HEALTHY AGING

A new and surprising mechanism turns out to control the blood flow within the brain. The mechanism may be the target for new drugs for the treatment of stroke. Eventually, it may reduce brain damage after blood clots. The findings are published by an international research team in the scientific journal Nature.

Long-term brain damage caused by stroke could be reduced by saving cells called pericytes that control blood flow in capillaries, reports a new University College London-led study.

Until now, many scientists believed that blood flow within the brain was solely controlled by changes in the diameter of arterioles, blood vessels that branch out from arteries into smaller capillaries. The latest research reveals that the brain’s blood supply is in fact chiefly controlled by the narrowing or widening of capillaries as pericytes tighten or loosen around them.

The study, published this week in Nature, shows not only that pericytes are the main regulator of blood flow to the brain, but also that they tighten and die around capillaries after stroke. This significantly impairs blood flow in the long term, causing lasting damage to brain cells. The team of scientists from University College London, Oxford University and the University of Copenhagen showed that certain chemicals could halve pericyte death from simulated stroke in the lab, and hope to develop these into drugs to treat stroke victims.

Removing the blot clot is not enough

"At present, clinicians can remove clots blocking blood flow to the brain if stroke patients reach hospital early enough", explains Professor David Attwell of University College London’s Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, who led the study.


"However, the capillary constriction produced by pericytes may, by restricting the blood supply for a long time, cause further damage to nerve cells even after the clot is removed. Our latest research suggests that devising drugs to prevent capillary constriction may offer new therapies for reducing the disability caused by stroke", adds David Attwell.

"This discovery offers radically new treatment approaches for stroke", says study co-author Professor Alastair Buchan, Dean of Medicine and Head of the Medical Sciences Division at Oxford University. "Importantly, we should now be able to identify drugs that target these cells. If we are able to prevent pericytes from dying, it should help restore blood flow in the brain to normal and prevent the ongoing slow damage we see after a stroke which causes so much neurological disability in our patients". 

New insight to diagnostic imaging

The new research also gives insight into the mechanisms underlying the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect blood flow changes in the brain.

"Functional imaging allows us to see the activity of nerve cells within the human brain but until now we didn’t quite know what we were looking at", explains study co-author Professor Martin Lauritzen, of the University of Copenhagen.

"We have shown that pericytes initiate the increase in blood flow seen when nerve cells become active, so we now know that functional imaging signals are caused by a pericyte-mediated increase of capillary diameter. Knowing exactly what functional imaging shows will help us to better understand and interpret what we see", adds Martin Lauritzen.

Contact:

Professor Martin Lauritzen
Mobile: +45 2484 1840